Modernization and social stability in the ASEAN region with special reference to education

Ungku Abdul Aziz, Ungku Abdul Hamid (1982) Modernization and social stability in the ASEAN region with special reference to education. Asian Journal of Economics, 1 (3). pp. 215-222.

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What is meant by “modernization”? The concept of “modernization” is always associated with change. The changes may occur physically or it may also involve changes in the mindset, attitudes, motivation, ethics, morals etc. It is multifarious and continuous. For the purpose of this discussion, the modernization is divided into traditional situation and modernized situation. It shall be restricted to the known objectives in any situation, while avoiding value-judgement on modernization. There are three main topics which are frequently associated with modernization, namely social security, education and international cooperation. This paper concentrates on the forces that can influence social stability from the point of view of programs for modernization. By definition, traditional society remain unchanged over a long period of time. However, after being exposed to the outside world and culture, there is a change over the mindset of the traditional society. They are looking for continuous improvement and wanting to have a better level of living standard. Adopting to new lifestyles, they slowly form a new group, “middle class”. The increase income level of the middle class has widening the gap in between the rural and the middle class people and thus may cause social instability. Most of the modernization efforts in ASEAN countries involve credit financing. This may further increase the monopsonic tendencies and exploitation on the peasants and farmers. All these may fail to bring the desire outcome as per original modernization planning. Education consists of all aspects of formal education, from kindergarten to tertiary postgraduate, private or public. The knowledge transfer process varies from countries to countries. From basic knowledge about their own country, basic preparation into the workforce and to professional skills, the education system prepare the most suitable candidates for workforce in different fields and sectors. The university main purpose is to manage the knowledge. The luxury of freedom in the choice of knowledge sometimes might confuse the scholars or the university lecturers. The wrong choice of knowledge will lead to undigested texts or lectures. This will then fill the students’ mind with irrelevant data that may construct the false view of the real world. International cooperation in this paper is restricted to the discussion of academic field, excluding trade and investment. The cooperation will allow the universities to offer training and to share experience in between universities, as well as research facilities. However, the corporation relationship might indirectly influence the decision of purchasing hardware from the partnering countries. The university in the developing country may be overwhelmed by the university from the advance country. Ultimately, the big partner may subtly enter into the web of socio-political relationships and gradually eliminates all those who are inimical. Modernization is a concept that changes its nature. There are parties that may induce or interfere the process. Thus modernization may create social tensions or expand the social fabric, according to the purpose of operator concerned. Education on the other hand, stand as the major venue for modernization. International cooperation allows the optimization of the influence to transform the ASEAN nation into a more resilient society which enjoy rapid modernization.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Middle class; Living standard; Traditional society; Income; Social tension; Tertiary education; International cooperation
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
Divisions: University of Malaya Library > Ungku A. Aziz Collection
Depositing User: Ms Goh Yee Fang
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2019 04:26
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2019 04:26

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